Fraction Story: Determining Importance

This lesson is part of a thematic unit on integrating literacy into mathematics.  The topic is fractions.

Title of Lesson

Fraction Story: Determining Importance

Course

Third Grade Math
Math: Fractions
Literacy: Determining Importance

Standard(s)

CCSS.Math.Content.3.NF.A.1           Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b.

CCSS.Math.Content.3.NF.A.2           Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.3.4           Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.

Objectives

I can determine what information is important in text.

I can show and understand that fractions represent equal parts of a whole, where the top number is the part and the bottom number is the total number of parts in the whole.

I can recognize and write fractions and explain what they mean using words or models.

 

Materials

Pencils
Hilighters
Worksheets (included below)
Whiteboards/Markers
Reference for determining importance in math word problems

Essential Question(s):

How can we determine what information is important in a story problem?
How can we visualize a fraction?
How can we show what a fraction is without using numbers?
How can we show what a fraction represents?

Inclusion Activity

5-10 minutes

Discuss the following:
When we are reading a text, what is a detail?
What is a big idea?
How do we determine what is important in a text as we read?

This is the overviewing step.

The goal is to ensure students can recognize the difference between details and the big idea, or general understanding of the text.  Use previous concepts to discuss the importance of details: for example, how we use details to visualize what we are reading.

Allow students to offer their ideas via an open discussion and help cement a firm understanding of what to look for in “important details” in text.

Discuss with the students how, when it comes to story problems, important details are the ones that will help us answer the question.  Those are the details we need to find as we begin our activity.

 

Sequence of Activities

Give each student a worksheet.

Worksheet includes the following scenarios:

Determining Importance: Fraction Story Problems

  1. Captain Bob wanted to see the world! He decided to go on a long journey, sailing from one end of the earth to the other.  One sunny day, Captain Bob boarded a plane.  He traveled ¼ of the journey by plane.  Next, he boarded a boat.  He journeyed the rest of the way by boat.  What fraction of the journey does Captain Bob travel by boat?  Which mode of transportation was longer?

  2. Captain Bob had a lot of free time while on his boat! There are two things Captain Bob likes to do best: swim and watch TV.  Whilst on the boat, Captain Bob spent 3/8 of his free time watching TV.  Soon, he grew board watching all those shows.  He decided to swim, instead!  What fraction of Captain Bob’s free time did he spend swimming?  What did he spend more time doing?

  3. Captain Bob liked the food better on the plane than he did on the boat. For example, there were so many different kinds of drinks to choose from!  Captain Bob likes to blend his favorite kinds of juice.  His favorite drink has 2/5 orange juice.  He also adds cranberry juice.  What fraction of Captain Bob’s drink is cranberry juice?  What juice did his drink consist more of?

  4. Captain Bob didn’t want to be lonely on his journey. He decided to invite his friends along for the fun!  7/10 of his friends joined him on the plane.  The rest of his friends were afraid to fly, so they chose to take the boat.  What fraction of Captain Bob’s friends were on the boat?  Which mode of transportation had more friends?

  5. Captain Bob was pretty lazy during his journey. With all that spare time, he didn’t have much to do!  However, Captain Bob loves to sleep.  He spent 2/9 of his time sleeping on the plane.  What fraction did Captain Bob stay awake?  What did he do more: sleep or stay awake?

  1. Work together on problem #1. Read the story problem aloud, or have the student read it aloud.  Using a highlighter, have students suggest what they believe are important details in the story problem.  As the students make their suggestions, be sure to ask them if the idea they are highlighting helps them to solve the problem.  Also, discuss why certain details are not important to solving the problem. For example: the sky being blue does not help us determine any part of a fraction.
    Optional: print only one word problem per sheet or half sheet and distribute one per student.  That way, they cannot see their fellow students’ problems.

 

  1. Once you see the students are comfortable picking out important details, assign one question per student. The questions will have extra details that are not all pertinent to answering the question.  This is the overviewing step: students will want to read through their word problems, skimming for important words, sentences, and ideas.  Allow them time to work on them individually, highlighting the important details they believe will help them solve the problem.  Remind them as they work to think of what they already know (prior knowledge) to guide them in choosing the right details.
  2. Once the students feel as though they have thoroughly read and reviewed their word problems, have them highlight the ideas. Inform students to be prepared to explain why they chose those details: this is the self-assess step.
  3. One by one, students will share their word problems. The students will only share the details from their word problems that they found important.  They will not share the other details/sentences of the word problem.  Listening students will use their whiteboards and the information read to them to solve the problem on their own.  If the students cannot solve their problems, use the compare and revise stage to assess the interpretation of important details and revise as needed.  Students should openly discuss if there was enough information to solve the problem, what information was missing if they could not solve the problem, and etc.
    Important: where necessary, give students any missing information so that they may solve the problems to completion.

 

Instructional Strategies

Learning groups/cooperative learning
Group discussion/brainstorming

Assessment

Formative: Listening to students offer their understanding of the concepts.  Review responses on worksheets.

Summative:  Topic test

Differentiation

ELL: Provide full worksheets of all problems.

ELL: Allow students to verbalize their understanding, their important ideas, and/or the way they solve their problems.

ELL: Allow students to use the whiteboards to draw their understanding and/or show their problem-solving.

Summary, Integration, and Reflection

Discussing as a team what parts of each story problem were important and why.  It is also important to discuss which parts of the story problems were unnecessary to solving the problem, as in, which were unimportant details.

 

By |April 11th, 2019|3rd Grade, Math|

Fraction Story: Connecting to Text

This lesson is part of a thematic unit on integrating literacy into mathematics.  The topic is fractions.

Title of Lesson

Fraction Story: Connecting to Text

Course

Third Grade Math

Fractions

Standard(s)

CCSS.Math.Content.3.NF.A.1           Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b.

CCSS.Math.Content.3.NF.A.2           Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.3.4           Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.

Objectives

I can: connect math concepts to something in my own life experience.

I can: connect math concepts to other match concepts I have learned or used before.

I can: connect math concepts to something that is occurring or has occurred in the world.

Materials

Device
YouTube: My Half Day read aloud
“Making Math Connections” worksheets (created by Kristina Wyatt, included below)
Pencils

Essential Question(s):

What text-to-self?  What is math-to-self?
What is text-to-text?  What is math-to-math?
What is text-to-world?  What is math-to-world?

Inclusion Activity

5-10 minutes

Prepare students for a conversion of the “text-to-_____” concept to “math-to-_____” concept.  Discuss what text-to-self, text-to-text, text-to-world means, respectively, and have each student provide an example.  This lesson relies on students’ prior knowledge of text-to-____ concepts.

Tell a short story (preferably containing fraction concepts for this lesson) or conduct a short read-aloud to encourage thinking.

Example:  Tell a story about grocery shopping and buying five out of the ten apples available in the produce section.  Elaborate as needed until students can produce “text-to-_____” examples of their own.

If students continue to struggle, model your own examples.

Once comfortable with the “text-to-_____” foundation, discuss how we can alter the strategy to be “math-to-_____” instead (using self/math/world).  Review the worksheet which gives definitions for “math-to-_____” connections.  Model examples of each from the same fraction story.

 

Sequence of Activities

Distribute the Making Math Connections Worksheet.

Either with individual devices or one central device, show the video My Half Day read aloud.  This is a fraction story with several examples of fractions throughout.

Since this lesson will be used for a small group, pause after each page to allow students to offer any “text-to-_____” examples they come across.  Have students share and record the examples in their worksheets (optional: if students are struggling, have them record all working examples.  If students are comfortable, have them record only their own).  Teacher: be sure to contribute your own  examples as well.

Continue through the story.  Once completed, replay the story one more time without pausing so students can write down any other examples they may have missed or need clarifying.

Instructional Strategies

Literacy strategy: connecting to text
Learning groups/cooperative learning
Group discussion/brainstorming

Assessment

Formative: Listening to students offer examples of connections during the inclusion activity as well as throughout the read-aloud.  Reviewing responses on worksheets.

Summative:  Topic test

Differentiation

Inclusion activity: teacher model examples or offer written examples.

Provide a script from the read-aloud.

Have students record all connections made on the worksheet, and not just their own.

ELL: Allow students to draw their connections or speak them into a recorder.

ELL: Provide advance notes, script, examples, etc. for them to review prior to the activity.

 

Summary, Integration, and Reflection

Students openly discuss the connections they made.  If connections did not meet the criteria, we discussed why/why not and, in some cases, adjusted them so that they did meet criteria.

Making Math Connections Worksheet
(created by Kristina Wyatt)making connections (Fractions)

 

 

By |April 11th, 2019|3rd Grade, Math|

Fraction Story: Vocabulary

This lesson is part of a thematic unit on integrating literacy into mathematics.  The topic is fractions.

Title of Lesson

Fraction Story: Vocabulary

Course

Third Grade Math

Fractions

Standard(s)

CCSS.Math.Content.3.NF.A.1           Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b.

CCSS.Math.Content.3.NF.A.2           Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.3.4           Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.

Objectives

I can: show and understand that fractions represent equal parts of a whole, where the top number is the part and the bottom number is the total number of parts in the whole.

I can: recognize and write simple fractions and explain their components using words.

Materials

Device
Quizlet.com or flashcards
Headphones or ear plugs
Paper and pencil
Math textbook
Diagram printout

Essential Question(s):

What are different types of fractions?
How are fractions used in our daily lives?

Inclusion Activity

5-10 minutes

This is our first lesson, so begin the activity by telling the students: “We will be working together over the next several weeks.  Our mini lessons are going to revolve around fractions and writing a fraction story.  But first, I need your help!  I need you to teach me what you know about fractions.”

Provide the diagram I have created (attached below) for a visual that the students can write on.  Each vocabulary word is depicted, so that the students may label the diagram with the correct terms.  (Optional: provide a word bank if the students miss any of the terms depicted).

As they work through the diagram, have the students compile a vocabulary list of terms relating to fractions that will be inputted into digital flashcards.  Discuss terms and their definitions, what they look like, and how they are used.  Have a math textbook on hand (or use the teacher’s provided anchor chart) to reference, just in case.

Using a device such as a laptop to access quizlet.com, enter the terms as they come up with them, including their definitions.  Be sure to guide them when necessary, as your premade cards will be sure to differ from their definitions (you don’t want them to be too different, but it is expected and good that wording varies slightly.  This will encourage complex thinking for literacy).

Sequence of Activities

Prepare: Using Quizlet.com, prepare two sets of flashcards ahead of time.  You should have three rounds total, including the terms the students define on their own:

  • Definitions (with term as the answer)
  • Picture (with term as the answer)
  • Terms (with definition as the answer)

Also prepare a couple of tie-breaker cards that are number line questions (adapted to fit Mrs. Lang’s current lessons revolving around number lines).  Show a series of fractions on a number line with one highlighted to be guessed.

Be sure to have students turn in their diagrams momentarily before they start the game.

Activity (15-20 minutes): Divide into equal numbered teams.  Explain that the object of the game is to get as many flashcards correct.  The opposite team should wear headphones to make it fair (or ear plugs if headphones are not on hand).

Use a number line flashcard to choose who goes first (whoever raises their hand/gets it correct first).  Each team should then choose the order in which they’ll answer.  One student per turn gets to answer, in order.  Pace should be quick.  Teacher should keep tally of correct answers.

First round: Begin with the definition cards, where the definition is given and the students must guess the term.  Explain that the definitions may differ from what they’ve come up with, but the meaning should be the same – another way of describing the same term (literacy differentiation).  Once the round is complete,

Second round: Test using the term cards.  The students should be able to give a basic definition that does not have to match word-for-word with the given definition on the back of the cards.

Third round: Test using the picture cards.  For example: the numerator flashcard should have a fraction on the front with the numerator circled.  The students should identify that the answer is numerator.

If a tie-breaker is necessary, use the number line cards.

Optional: provide a prize or incentive for the winning team.  Or, for every correct answer (countable by your tally), give a piece of candy or one eraser from the dollar store bags of miniature erasers, etc.

Wrap-up (5 minutes):  Discuss with students the challenges of the game.  Was it difficult defining given terms?  What did they notice between my definitions and theirs?  Were there any words that stuck out to them and helps them to remember?  Which terms were the most difficult to remember?  Which method (of the three rounds) worked best for them?  (Compare and contrast the number right for each round).   Also, be sure to ask the students what they liked about the game and what they thought could be done differently.

Instructional Strategies

Learning groups/cooperative learning

Group discussion/brainstorming

Assessment

Formative: Guiding the students through the Inclusion Activity where they define the terms.  Observe responses (ensure that each student has a chance to define 1-2 terms, respectively).

Summative:  Topic test

Differentiation

Variation in the number of terms allows for struggling and/or advanced learners.

Omit more difficult rounds.

Adding multiple choice answers to the flashcards.

Allowing students to work together to come up with answers.

Summary, Integration, and Reflection

Discussing as a team what worked and what didn’t work is a great way to reflect on the activities.  Also, allowing students to make their own flashcards based on what you came up with together in the Inclusion Activity can and should be done, to be helpful for future lessons.

Vocabulary

Number line
Fraction (proper fraction)
Numerator
Denominator
Improper fraction
Whole number
Mixed fraction
Equivalent fraction
Unit fraction
Part
Share

fraction number line

By |April 11th, 2019|3rd Grade, Math|

Days, Weeks, and Months of the Year (1st grade lesson plan)

This History lesson is an ongoing study of the days, weeks, and months of a year.  Students will gain an understanding of how many days, weeks and months are in a year and what their respective names are.  This lesson can be conducted daily to achieve memorization, and includes a calendar for each student to track the days of the year.

Title of Lesson

Days, Weeks, and Months of the Year

Course

First Grade History

Living and Working Together in Families and Schools

Standard(s)

1 – H2.0.2            Use a calendar to distinguish among days, weeks, and months.

Objectives

I can: Identify the days, weeks, and months in a year. (Bloom’s: Understand, Repetition)

Materials

Yearly calendar that includes days, weeks, and months; calendar printout for each student (image attached below);

Songs (Youtube):
Days of the Week Song
Months of the Year Song

Essential Question(s):

How many days are in a week? (7)

How many weeks are in a year? (52)

How many months are in a year? (12)

Inclusion Activity

Watch the following videos in order of teaching:

How many days are in a week?
Days of the Week Song

How many months are in a year?
Months of the Year Song

Sequence of Activities

  1. Review these songs often: these can be reviewed daily for repetition and memorization.
  2. Show a large yearly calendar to the class and distribute printouts of the yearly calendar to each student. These should be kept in their daily folders (or something that they use every day).
  3. After the Days of the Week song, ask students how many days there are in a week.
    1. Have students count the days in a week, then recite (choral, led by teacher) the day names. As memorization progresses, students will recite on their own.
    2. Discuss the abbreviation of each day name (MTWTFSS) and, as a class, spell them out on their papers together.
  4. Have students count how many weeks are in a year. Each line is a week – teacher should lead the counting.
  5. View the Months of the Year song.
    1. Have students count how many months are in a year. Have students recite (choral, led by teacher) the month names.  As memorization progresses, students will recite on their own.
  6. Have students mark off each day on the calendar as the year progresses.
  7. Extension activity: each day when students mark off the day, write the date on the board to practice writing it correctly. Have students refer to the calendar for proper form and spelling.  As the year progresses, they will memorize the form and begin to tell the teacher what to write.  For example: Monday, January 2, 2017.
    1. Summative assessment: as the year progresses, students can write this date on their papers to apply their learning. Teacher can leave the date written on the board for reference.
  8. Extension activity: have students number the weeks (52) and months (12). On Mondays of each week, ask the students what number week and what number month we are in.

Instructional Strategies

Visual instruction (writing on whiteboard, viewing calendars)

Large group (teacher-class)

Assessment

Formative: Encourage all students to contribute to the discussion.  Choral recitation will ensure student memorization, and teacher can assess who is not participating in the choral recitation simply by viewing students’ participation.

Summative:  Students’ completion of marking their maps.  Students’ writing of the date on their worksheets throughout the day.

Differentiation

Students who struggle with these concepts or may require reminding of classroom rules might need reinforcement and reminding (such as those with IEPs or 504s).

If students are not memorizing, take time to work individually or have them work with partners.  They can practice singing, repeating line by line, the songs provided.

Teacher can lead the calendar markings so that students can watch what to do before they do it.  Other students may go ahead and do it on their own.

Summary, Integration, and Reflection

Daily integration of this activity will ensure memorization and understanding of the concept.  At the beginning of the year this should be teacher-led and conducted as a quick class activity.  By mid- to end-of-year, students should be able to do this individually without much reference.

yearly calendar

 

By |December 11th, 2017|1st Grade, History|

Flip, Turn, or Slide and Congruence (3rd grade lesson plan)

This lesson begins to teach students the geometric concepts of flip, turn, slide, and congruence.  Students will learn the accompanying vocabulary and  demonstrate the concepts using hands-on learning and graphing.

Title of Lesson

Flip, Turn, or Slide and Congruence

Course

Grade 3 Geometry

Standards

3.G.A.1           Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals).  Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of those subcategories.

Student Learning Goal(s)

  • Students will know the following vocabulary: triangle, congruent, symmetry, transformation, slide or translation, flip or reflection, turn or rotation, pre-image, image.
  • Students will be able to demonstrate the above vocabulary and construct each independently.

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Remember previous geometrical concepts that apply to this lesson (e.g. quadrilateral,
rhombus, rectangle, square, and others).
Understand new vocabulary and concepts.
Apply vocabulary and concepts in the activity.
Create diagrams of the vocabulary proposed.

Assessment

Formative assessment: following the teacher’s demonstration using an overhead projector and pentominoes (or other shape/geometric materials) to demonstrate the vocabulary, students will attempt to mimic what they have learned and form their own diagrams and recordings.  Teacher will check for understanding.
Summative assessment: following the lesson and subsequent days of practice, an evaluative test would be administered.  An evaluative test can range from (a) simple testing or quizzes with work shown, or (b) via a geometry journal project where students will create a reference book defining and diagraming the vocabulary.

Procedures/Lesson Sequence

  1.  Discuss each term with the students as a class.  Each student will record the term and definition (one per page) in their geometry journal.
  2. Check prior knowledge: use overhead magnetic pentominoes to have students demonstrate their knowledge of the terms.
  3. Conduct hands-on activity: provide students with individual sets of pentominoes and graph paper (optional).  Students will practice translations, reflections, and rotations.
    1. Provide a list of steps students must follow to produce each diagram.  For example, problem #1 would state: from point A, show 2 slides and 2 flips across the graph paper.  Students will then trace the starting point (pre-image) as well as their ending point (image).  These pages of graph paper should be included in their geometry journal.
  4. Closing: Have students share and describe how they found their answers.

Materials

Graphing paper, pentominoes (or other shape/geometric materials), overhead projector, pencils, journal or folder designated for geometry terms.

Technology

An overhead projector is required to demonstrate the vocabulary using pentominoes or other overhead shape/geometric materials.  This technology engages students as it gives a real-time, hands-on example of the vocabulary being discussed.  Students may also be asked to use the projector and pentominoes themselves when called upon to demonstrate their learning.

Adaptations

  • Pre-teach all vocabulary and concepts.
  • Provide study guides and worksheets to provide references and foster memorization.
  • Write vocabulary and definitions on the board so that students may easily transcribe without error into their journals.
  • Use visuals via the overhead for visual cognition.
  • Use simple terms in association with difficult vocabulary (i.e. “slide” for translation, “flip” for reflection, and “turn” for rotation).
  • Have students repeat directions for the steps, and provide substantial pause between steps while vocalizing.
  • Write steps on the board and have students transcribe them into their journals.
  • Have students use pentominoes so as to easily visualize the steps.
  • Have students use graphing paper to produce precise diagrams.
  • Circulate the room and provide assistance or thinking points with students if they struggle.
  • Instruct students to raise their hands and ask questions if they find themselves “stuck.”
  • Have students work with buddies to produce their diagrams, then copy into their own respective journals.
  • If students have difficulty writing, provide print-outs of the steps for students to cut and paste into their journals (graph paper also aids in writing legibly).

 

Image credit: ExcelMathMike

By |March 14th, 2016|3rd Grade, Geometry, Lesson Plans, Math|

The “Feel” of Music (kindergarten lesson plan)

This lesson incorporates music and art concepts to explore the “feel” of music.

Lesson Title

The “Feel” of Music

Course

Kindergarten interdisciplinary lesson plan for Music and Art

Materials

  • Medium to play music, such as computer, boombox, etc.
  • Various songs of different types (slow, fast, upbeat, sad, etc.) preferably from different cultures/genres
  • Crayons of many different colors for each student to use
  • Large piece of paper that can be divided/folded into parts

Objectives

The students will

  • Listen to different songs and recognize contrasting expressions, emotions, sounds, etc.
  • Identify expressions and emotions that they feel the songs represent.
  • Translate the expressions and emotions into terms of art, such as color, line, etc.
  • Describe their personal reactions to the musical selections and how they referenced those reactions in their artwork.

Standard(s)

Music:

ART.M.I.K.11             Recognize contrasting expressions of music.

ART.M.III.K.3            Describe the music performed and presented in kindergarten by moving, drawing, or through other appropriate responses.

ART.M.III.K.4            Introduce music vocabulary emphasizing opposites; i.e. fast and slow, loud and soft

ART.M.III.K.7            Identify and support personal reactions to a musical selection.

ART.M.IV.K.1            Identify and describe distinguishing characteristics of starkly contrasting styles.

ART.M.V.K.2             Observe and identify cross-curricular connections with the kindergarten curriculum

Art:

ART.VA.I.K.2             Work with materials and tools safely with environmental awareness.

ART.VA.I.K.3             Explore the elements of art through playful sensory experiences.

ART.VA.I.K.4             Prepare, complete, and sign finished artwork.

ART.VA.II.K.2           Use a variety of lines, colors, and basic geometric shapes and patterns to creatively express feelings and personal experiences.

ART.VA.II.K.5           Express thoughts and ideas through the creation of artwork.

ART.VA.III.K.2          Recognize that art can be created for self-expression or fun.

ART.VA.III.K.3          Describe the sensory qualities in a work of art.

ART.VA.V.K.3           Identify how pattern, shape, rhythm, and movement are used throughout the arts.

ART.VA.V.K.4           Explore connections between the visual arts and other curriculum.

Anticipatory Set

5 minutes

Open discussion with students about music:

  • Do you like listening to music?  Why or why not?
  • How do they feel when they listen to music?
  • Does it make them want to dance or sing?
  • Do they feel the same feelings with every song they hear, or do they feel differently about different songs?
  • If you could color or draw how you feel when you listen to a song, what would it look like?

Introduction / Direct Instruction

5 minutes

  • Instruct the children to fold their sheets of paper in as many parts as you have musical selections (i.e. 6 songs, fold the paper to make 6 sections, divided by fold lines).
  • (Transition) “Let’s listen to this first song. As you listen, think about how it makes you feel.  Then, I would like you to color or draw in the first square what you think this song sounds like, or how it makes you feel.  You can draw anything, and it can be any color, as long as you can explain what you drew and how it relates to the music.”
  • Play an excerpt from the first song. Allow the students time to think, then draw.  If further direction is needed, reiterate: “Listen first, then think, and lastly, draw.”

Checking for Understanding

2 minutes

At the end of the first excerpt, select a few students to describe their artwork. Ask: “How did the song make you feel?  What colors did you choose and why?  Did you draw any objects or people, or is it just color?”  You may also use this opportunity to define “abstract art.”  This discussion is to ensure comprehension of what is expected of the students before moving on.

Direct Instruction/Guided Practice/Assessment of Learning

10-15 minutes

Continue with the rest of the musical selections. Discuss each as needed.  Take time to notice differentiation between students’ reactions, i.e. “This song made Suzie feel sad, but it also made Andrew feel tired.  Why do you think that is?” or “Suzie feels sad, so she used the color blue.  Andrew felt tired, so he used the color black.  Why do you think that is?”  Have students explain their reasoning.

Lesson Close

Select a quieter song to use for transition, and relate the components of the song to the students’ expression. “Listen to the softness and quietness of this song.  Let’s be just as quiet as we put away our things and move on to the next lesson.”

 

By |March 7th, 2016|Arts, Kindergarten, Music|

Underhand Throw (1st grade lesson plan)

Physical Education unit consisting of three coordinating lesson plans

 

Lesson Plan Title

Underhand Throw – Demonstration and Bowling

Course

1st grade Physical Education

Total Class Time

30 minutes

Objective(s) the students will be able to:

  • Throw underhand at a target within their personal space.
  • Step with opposition, bring arm back, and release the ball underhanded in front of them.
  • Practice spatial awareness and ball control.

Standard(s)

Demonstrate Level 2 performance in: spatial awareness, effort, underhand throw

Equipment Needed

  • CD player and music
  • Bowling pins
  • Bowling balls

Warm-up

5 minutes (use this time to set up equipment)

  • Students will jog around the track while the music plays.
  • Students will swing their arms with purpose as they run, focusing on the rhythmic swinging that will later on mirror the swing of the underhand throw.
  • When the music stops, students will line up on the track sideline.

Lesson introduction/details, cues, etc.

5 minutes

  • “I will go over the cues for throwing the ball underhand at the target.”
  • Demonstrate the proper stance for standing in the “ready to throw” position, opposite the target.  Demonstrate swinging the arm way back, stepping with the opposite foot, then releasing the bean bag out in front.

 

Skill/Activity Practice

15 minutes

  • Divide the students into five groups.  Create five “lanes” with bowling pins at one end.
  • Students will each take a turn in their groups to underhand throw the bowling ball.  They get two throws each turn (like with actual bowling).
  • One student should be at the opposite end to pick up pins and return the ball – ball must be returned also with underhand throw.
  • Students must practice spatial awareness and ball control due to the ability of the balls to go astray.

Closing

5 minutes

Reiterate the demonstration of the appropriate stance for underhand throwing and controlling the ball.  Have students return equipment to the equipment area.

 


 

Lesson Plan Title

Underhand Throw – Throw the Yard

Course

1st grade Physical Education

Total Class Time

30 minutes

Objective(s) the students will be able to:

  • Throw underhand at a target within their personal space.
  • Step with opposition, bring arm back, and release the ball underhanded in front of them.
  • Practice spatial awareness.

Standard(s)

Demonstrate Level 2 performance in: spatial awareness, effort, underhand throw

Equipment Needed

  • CD player and music
  • Several bean bags (the more the better!)
  • 4 hula hoops

Warm-up

5 minutes (use this time to set up equipment)

  • Students will jog around the track while the music plays.
  • Students will swing their arms with purpose as they run, focusing on the rhythmic swinging that will later on mirror the swing of the underhand throw.
  • When the music stops, students will line up on the track sideline.

 

Lesson introduction/details, cues, etc.

5 minutes

  • “Let’s review how to underhand throw.”  Demonstrate.
  • Discuss the rules for “Throw the Yard” game.  Students will be underhand throwing bean bags into other teams’ “yards.”  If they see a bean bag on the ground in their “yard,” they may pick it up and throw it into the neighbor’s yard (hula hoop).

 

Skill/Activity Practice

15 minutes

  • Divide the students into four groups; also, divide the gym floor into four quadrants.  Each quadrant will have one hula hoop at its center.
  • Students will be underhand throwing into their neighbors’ yards.  They must get their bean bags into the other teams’ hula hoops without leaving their own yard.  The goal is to have the least number of bean bags in their own hula hoops.
  • They cannot take bean bags out of the hula hoops that other teams have successfully thrown into their hula hoops.  They cannot overhand throw or purposefully hit another player.  These violations will call for removal from the game.

 

Closing

5 minutes

Reiterate the demonstration of the appropriate stance for underhand throwing and controlling the ball.  Have students return equipment to equipment area.

 


 

Lesson Plan Title

Underhand Throw – Hopscotch

Course

1st grade Physical Education

Total Class Time

30 minutes

Objective(s) the students will be able to:

  • Throw underhand at a target within their personal space.
  • Step with opposition, bring arm back, and release the ball underhanded in front of them.
  • Practice spatial awareness, balance, and the locomotor skill of hopping.

Standard(s)

Demonstrate Level 2 performance in: spatial awareness, effort, underhand throw

Equipment Needed

  • CD player and music
  • Chalk
  • 25 bean bags (one per child)

Preparation

Do this activity on a nice day where you can take students outside to the black top.  Pre-draw several hopscotch courses.

Warm-up

5 minutes (use this time to set up equipment)

  • Students will jog around the track while the music plays.
  • Students will swing their arms with purpose as they run, focusing on the rhythmic swinging that will later on mirror the swing of the underhand throw.
  • When the music stops, students will line up on the track sideline.

Lesson introduction/details, cues, etc.

5 minutes

  • “Let’s review how to underhand throw.”  Demonstrate.
  • Take the students outside and discuss the rules of hopscotch.  Demonstrate how to carefully aim and underhand throw to get the “spot” you want on the hopscotch course.

Skill/Activity Practice

15 minutes

  • Divide the students into four hopscotch teams.  Each team will have their own hopscotch course.  Each student will have their own bean bag to underhand throw on their hopscotch course.
  • Students will throw their bean bags on the course, one by one, in an underhand throw.  The spot on the course that the bean bag lands on, the student must not hop on that spot.  They will hop on one foot through the course, then upon returning, attempt to pick up their bean bag (and then may hop on that spot).

Closing

5 minutes

Reiterate the demonstration of the appropriate stance for underhand throwing and controlling the ball.  Have students return equipment to equipment area.

 

Image credit: OPHEA

By |February 18th, 2016|1st Grade, Physical Education|

Nutrition Labels (5th grade lesson plan)

Health Education unit consisting of three coordinating lesson plans.

Lesson Plan Title

Nutrition Labels – Reading and Deciphering

Course

Grade 5 Health Education

Total Class Time

30 minutes

Objective(s) the students will be able to:

  • Read food labels and find nutritional values.
  • Differentiate between healthy and unhealthy foods based upon their nutritional value.

Standard(s)

1.3         Demonstrate the ability to use information on food labels to choose nutrient-dense foods and beverages, and to avoid or limit foods and beverages that are low in nutrients or may impact health conditions.

1.4         Prepare meal plans according to the federal dietary guidelines.

Material Needed

  • Food labels cut from various food packages.
  • Federal dietary guidelines for nutrition.

Lesson Procedure

  1. Begin lesson by asking students: “How do we find a food’s nutritional value?  How do we tell if it is healthy for us or not?”
  2. Pass out food labels to students.  Allow time for students to study the labels.
  3. Ask students to share their findings: how much sugar does their food have?  How much salt?
  4. Using the information pulled from the federal dietary guidelines, explain the recommended allowances of sugar, salt, and et cetera with the students.
  5. Ask the students to raise their hands if any of their foods exceed or come close to the recommended allowances.
  6. Determine as a class which labels fall into a “healthy” category and which fall into an “unhealthy” category.

Lesson Continuation

For homework and for the next lesson, ask the students to find their favorite food in their homes.
Each student will cut out the food label to bring to class.
Each student should find the sugar content and, with the help of an adult if needed, measure that amount of sugar into a Ziploc bag to bring to class.
Students should use a sharpie marker to label on the Ziploc bag what the food item is, and how much sugar is in the bag.

 


 

Lesson Plan Title

Nutrition Labels – Favorite Foods

Course

Grade 5 Health Education

Total Class Time

30 minutes

Objective(s) the students will be able to

  • Read food labels and find nutritional values.
  • Differentiate between healthy and unhealthy foods based upon their nutritional value.
  • Compare and contrast sugar content in foods.

Standard(s)

1.3         Demonstrate the ability to use information on food labels to choose nutrient-dense foods and beverages, and to avoid or limit foods and beverages that are low in nutrients or may impact health conditions.

1.4         Prepare meal plans according to the federal dietary guidelines.

Material Needed

  • Students’ individual food labels brought from home; the teacher should bring one as well for an example.
  • Ziploc bag of sugar coordinating with the chosen food label.
  • A large surface.

Lesson Procedure

  1. Begin lesson by showing the bag of sugar brought by the teacher, explaining the amount, and describing the food item it is found in.  Have the students discuss whether or not the amount of sugar constitutes if the food is healthy or unhealthy.
  2. Allow students to, one by one, share their sugar content.  As a class, decided which are healthy and unhealthy.
  3. Most students will probably categorize their favorite foods into the unhealthy category as most foods contain sugar.  Discuss with the students how a food may contain sugar yet still be considered healthy.
  4. On a large surface, sort the Ziploc bags of sugar in order by least to most sugar.  Have students compare which foods have the least sugar versus which have the most.
  5. Have students turn in the food label cut outs of their favorite foods for the next lesson.

 


 

Lesson Plan Title

Nutrition Labels – Make a Menu

Course

Grade 5 Health Education

Total Class Time

30 minutes

Objective(s) the students will be able to:

  • Read food labels and find nutritional values.
  • Differentiate between healthy and unhealthy foods based upon their nutritional value.
  • Create a menu based upon federal dietary guidelines.
  • Learn how to make good food choices as well as the concept of moderation.

Standard(s)

1.3         Demonstrate the ability to use information on food labels to choose nutrient-dense foods and beverages, and to avoid or limit foods and beverages that are low in nutrients or may impact health conditions.

1.4         Prepare meal plans according to the federal dietary guidelines.

Material Needed

  • Several food labels cut from various food packages, or created mock-ups of food labels.
  • Federal dietary guidelines for nutrition printouts.
  • Paper and pencils.

Lesson Procedure

  1. Begin lesson by passing back the students’ favorite food nutrition labels from the previous lessons and a printout of the federal dietary guidelines.
  2. Review the federal dietary guidelines and discuss the recommended intake values for students their age.  Values should include (but are not limited to) sugar, salt, carbohydrates, fats, protein, vegetables, fruits, and et cetera.
  3. Separate students into groups of five.  Using the food labels or mock-ups, give each group several to choose from.  Instruct the groups to create a day’s menu.  Their menus should follow the dietary guidelines and recommended intake amounts, should seem like enough food to feed an active child, and should allow for one “enjoyable” snack agreed upon by the group.  Have the groups discuss whether their favorite foods can or should be fit into their menus.  The groups should document their finished menus and their nutritional values on one paper per group.
  4. Once completed, have the groups share their findings.  Each group should share what foods they chose and how much of each of the nutritional values listed in step number 2.  Students should also share which of their favorite foods could and could not be fit into their menus.

 

Image credit: HockeyPerformanceAcademy

By |February 18th, 2016|5th Grade, Health|

Primary and Secondary Colors (kindergarten lesson plan)

This lesson combines art and music concepts to teach a catchy song that will help young students memorize their primary colors.  They will then translate their knew knowledge to an art activity to explore beyond  the primary colors into secondary colors.

Title of Lesson

Primary and Secondary Colors

Course

Kindergarten Arts

Complementary subject: music

Resources

The Primary Color song for easy remembering of the primary colors:

The Primary Color Song
(sung to the tune of Three Blind Mice)

Red, Yellow, Blue
Red, Yellow, Blue
I see you
Red, Yellow, Blue
You are the primary colors
You make all the other colors
I wish I was a color
Like Red, Yellow, Blue

Standard(s)

ART.VA.I.K.2       Work with materials and tools safely with environmental awareness.
ART.VA.I.K.3       Explore the elements of art through playful sensory experiences.
ART.VA.I.K.4       Prepare, complete, and sign finished artwork.
ART.VA.II.K.1      Explore the basic uses of art materials to produce artwork.
ART.VA.II.K.2      Use a variety of lines, colors, and basic geometric shapes and patterns to creatively express feelings and personal experiences.
ART.VA.II.K.4      Select subject matter and communicate a personal story in a painting or drawing.
ART.VA.II.K.5      Express thoughts and ideas through the creation of artwork.
ART.VA.III.K.4    Describe a personal artwork.
ART.VA.V.K.1       Identify and discuss art in the student’s environment.

Objectives

Students will:

  • Identify primary and secondary colors.
  • Explain how mixing primary colors can create secondary colors.
  • Create marble art pieces to demonstrate their understanding of primary and secondary colors, as well as how to make secondary colors.

Materials

  • Red, yellow, blue paints
  • Several marbles
  • Shallow cardboard boxes
  • Tape
  • Paper plates
  • Smocks
  • Color Palette Worksheet
  • Whiteboard
  • Red, yellow, blue dry erase markers
  • An array of colored markers, crayons, or colored pencils – ensure you have several colors for each child to choose from.

Vocabulary

  • primary color
  • secondary color
  • shade
  • tint
  • hue

Class Time Needed

Lesson can expand across three days, or be condensed into 1-2 long lessons.

Preparation

To minimize on mess, parent volunteers would be a great asset for the marble art portion of this lesson plan.

Lesson Procedure

Day 1: 15-30 minutes

  1. Introduce the concept of primary and secondary colors by discussing red, yellow, and blue.  Demonstrate the colors by coloring circles of each color on the whiteboard using dry erase markers.  This allows students to more easily visualize the lesson.
  2. Discuss how red, yellow, and blue are primary colors. These are the “main” colors that all other colors are made from.  Teach the students the Primary Color song, which is sung to the tune of “Three Blind Mice.”  The lyrics are:
    Red, Yellow, Blue
    Red, Yellow, Blue
    I see you
    Red, Yellow, Blue
    You are the primary colors
    You make all the other colors
    I wish I was a color
    Like Red, Yellow, Blue
  3. Ask students questions about the primary colors, such as: if they have ever mixed these colors together and what colors they have made; how they have mixed colors (using what medium); what happens when they mix two colors, three colors, or all colors together?
  4. Once the students have thought about the colors they have mixed, hand each child the color palette worksheet. Ask students to color circles on their papers of colors and think  about how each color was made.
  5. Have students suggest colors they think are made from mixing other colors; ask the students what colors they think are mixed to make the color they suggested – write the name of the color on the board beneath the primary colors. Discuss how these mixed colors are hues, tints, and shades of the primary colors, and then define each type (hue, tint, shade).  Discuss primary versus secondary colors.

Day 2: 30-60 minutes

  1. Start the lesson by singing the Primary Color song.
  2. Divide students into groups to minimize the number of paint stations in the classroom. Each group should have a paper plate on which you will poor blue, red, and yellow paint.
  3. Each student should have their own cardboard boxes. Cereal boxes with one side cut out work great for this: be sure to tape the sides of the box shut so that a marble can safely roll around in the box.
  4. Have each student put on their smock. Then, put one marble in each color of paint.  Each student should use one marble from each color of paint to roll in their boxes, creating a marble art piece of the primary colors.
  5. To create secondary colors, have each student pick a color they would like to create. For example: a student may saturate a marble in the yellow paint, and then dip it into the red paint as well.  Then, when rolling the marble in the box, they will see how the combined colors create orange.  At this point, it is okay to mix paint colors as they dip – the mess is fun!  As the students create their artwork, encourage discussion about the colors they are making, whether they are primary or secondary, and whether or not they are creating hues, tints, or shades.  Ask students why they chose a certain color, what they like about that color, and what other things are that color.

Day 3: 15 minutes

  1. Start the lesson by singing the Primary Color song.
  2. The marble art pieces should be dry and ready to show off to each other/take them home. Students may discuss with each other or as a whole class the colors they created.

Extension Activity

15-30 minutes

Choose a piece of artwork that is fun to look at and has many colors represented.  Ask students to look for the primary colors.  Then, ask the students to look for secondary colors.  Ask which colors were created to make the secondary colors that they spot.  Subsequently, allow the students to create their own drawing, and have them pay attention to which colors they are using.  Circulate the room and check in with students, asking them which colors they are using, whether they are primary or secondary, and if secondary which colors can be mixed to create the secondary color.

colorbynumber

Image credits: Poissy Design, Printables4Kids.com

By |February 1st, 2016|Arts, Kindergarten, Music|

Physics: Forces and Interactions (kindergarten/3rd grade lesson plan)

This lesson introduces students of any age to introductory physics.  This fun activity leads into a customizable lesson that can be tailored to most elementary grades.

Lesson Title

Forces and Interactions

Course

Kindergarten and/or 3rd Grade Science (physics)

Materials needed

  • hairdryer
  • lightweight ball such as a ping pong ball

Objectives

  • Students will observe the concept of force and its interaction with Earth’s gravity.
  • Students will observe the interaction between higher air pressure and the pull of gravity.
  • Students will develop an understanding of Newton’s law of action and reaction: 3rd law: for every action there must be an equal and opposite reaction.

Standard(s)

Kindergarten: Forces and Interactions, Pushes and Pulls

K-PS2-1:       Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object.

K-PS2-2:       Analyze data to determine if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a push or a pull.

Grade 3: Forces and Interactions

3-PS2-1:       Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object.

Anticipatory set

  • Kindergarten: use a diagramming exercise to focus students’ attention on the class objectives.
  • Third grade: use brainstorming techniques and a Writing to Learn (WTL) exercises to focus students’ attention on the class objectives.

Introduction

Discuss the concepts of gravity, force, air pressure, action and reaction.

Pose questions to engage students. Have students brainstorm and either write down (grade 3) or discuss (kindergarten) theories that may answer the questions.  Pose more complicated questions to grade 3 students.  Questions may include: How does gravity keep us on the ground? What happens if we don’t have gravity?  How does the concept of force relate to gravity?  How do things float?  Can we make something float despite gravity, and if so, how?

  • Grade 3: Conduct the demonstration and ask questions to further understanding: what do you think will happen to the ball when we put it in the air stream? What will happen if we try to pull the ball out of the air stream?  Why do you think the ball can float?  Is the force of gravity still in effect?  What is the “action” and what is the “reaction”?
  • Kindergarten: Conduct the demonstration and have the students draw what they see. As you discuss action and reaction, have the students diagram using arrows and other symbols to display what they believe is happening, i.e. gravity versus air pressure.

Procedures

  • Angle the blow dryer in an upright position and turn the speed on to its highest level.
  • Carefully position the ping pong ball in the air stream, then let go.
  • Move the blow dryer slowly and carefully to demonstrate how the ball will move in sequence with the blow dryer. (Further thinking #1)
  • Have a student slowly and carefully attempt to move the ball out of the air stream. (Further thinking #2)
  • Attempt to tilt the air stream to one side and see if the ball stays suspended. (Further thinking #3)
  • Have a student attempt to add another ball to the air flow. (Further thinking #4)

Conclusion

As the experiment is conducted, have students hypothesize outcomes for each “Further thinking” application. Use the hook, “What would happen if…?”

  • Explain: the airflow from the blow dryer pushes the ping pong ball upwards until its upward force equals the force of gravity pushing down on it. When it reaches this point, it gently bounces around, floating when the upward and downward forces are equal.
  • Explain: the reason the ping pong ball stays nicely inside the column of air produced by the blow dryer without shifting sideways is due to air pressure. The fast moving air from the hair dryer creates a column of lower air pressure.  The surrounding higher air pressure forces the ping pong ball to stay inside this column, making it easy to move the blow dryer around without losing control of the ball.
  • Compare: What else works similarly to this concept? The outward-flowing air exerts an inward force on the ball, just like the downward flow of air beneath a helicopter exerts an upward force on the blades of the helicopter.
  • What does it mean when the wavy lines on the paper are higher or lower? How could you use that to measure an earthquake?  Example: height of the largest waves indicates the size of an earthquake.
  • How can scientists use seismographs all over the world to pinpoint the location of an earthquake? Think about ripples in a pond or GPS systems.  Example: length of the earthquake record and the arrival times of each wave, the distance of the focus from the recording point can be determined.
  • What parts of the activity emulate how a true earthquake occurs? What are some of the problems an earthquake causes?  Examples: destruction of buildings, larger earthquakes causing small changes to Earth’s orbit, etc.

What to do next time

  • Have the students consider ways to improve the activity, or present new ways to test action and reaction.
By |November 17th, 2015|3rd Grade, Kindergarten, Science|
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