## Days, Weeks, and Months of the Year (1st grade lesson plan)

This History lesson is an ongoing study of the days, weeks, and months of a year.  Students will gain an understanding of how many days, weeks and months are in a year and what their respective names are.  This lesson can be conducted daily to achieve memorization, and includes a calendar for each student to track the days of the year.

### Title of Lesson

Days, Weeks, and Months of the Year

### Course

Living and Working Together in Families and Schools

### Standard(s)

1 – H2.0.2            Use a calendar to distinguish among days, weeks, and months.

### Objectives

I can: Identify the days, weeks, and months in a year. (Bloom’s: Understand, Repetition)

### Materials

Yearly calendar that includes days, weeks, and months; calendar printout for each student (image attached below);

Days of the Week Song
Months of the Year Song

### Essential Question(s):

How many days are in a week? (7)

How many weeks are in a year? (52)

How many months are in a year? (12)

### Inclusion Activity

Watch the following videos in order of teaching:

How many days are in a week?
Days of the Week Song

How many months are in a year?
Months of the Year Song

### Sequence of Activities

1. Review these songs often: these can be reviewed daily for repetition and memorization.
2. Show a large yearly calendar to the class and distribute printouts of the yearly calendar to each student. These should be kept in their daily folders (or something that they use every day).
3. After the Days of the Week song, ask students how many days there are in a week.
1. Have students count the days in a week, then recite (choral, led by teacher) the day names. As memorization progresses, students will recite on their own.
2. Discuss the abbreviation of each day name (MTWTFSS) and, as a class, spell them out on their papers together.
4. Have students count how many weeks are in a year. Each line is a week – teacher should lead the counting.
5. View the Months of the Year song.
1. Have students count how many months are in a year. Have students recite (choral, led by teacher) the month names.  As memorization progresses, students will recite on their own.
6. Have students mark off each day on the calendar as the year progresses.
7. Extension activity: each day when students mark off the day, write the date on the board to practice writing it correctly. Have students refer to the calendar for proper form and spelling.  As the year progresses, they will memorize the form and begin to tell the teacher what to write.  For example: Monday, January 2, 2017.
1. Summative assessment: as the year progresses, students can write this date on their papers to apply their learning. Teacher can leave the date written on the board for reference.
8. Extension activity: have students number the weeks (52) and months (12). On Mondays of each week, ask the students what number week and what number month we are in.

### Instructional Strategies

Visual instruction (writing on whiteboard, viewing calendars)

Large group (teacher-class)

### Assessment

Formative: Encourage all students to contribute to the discussion.  Choral recitation will ensure student memorization, and teacher can assess who is not participating in the choral recitation simply by viewing students’ participation.

Summative:  Students’ completion of marking their maps.  Students’ writing of the date on their worksheets throughout the day.

### Differentiation

Students who struggle with these concepts or may require reminding of classroom rules might need reinforcement and reminding (such as those with IEPs or 504s).

If students are not memorizing, take time to work individually or have them work with partners.  They can practice singing, repeating line by line, the songs provided.

Teacher can lead the calendar markings so that students can watch what to do before they do it.  Other students may go ahead and do it on their own.

### Summary, Integration, and Reflection

Daily integration of this activity will ensure memorization and understanding of the concept.  At the beginning of the year this should be teacher-led and conducted as a quick class activity.  By mid- to end-of-year, students should be able to do this individually without much reference.

By |December 11th, 2017|1st Grade, History|

## Autism Spectrum Disorder: Recognizing Delays, Implementing Adaptations, and Fostering Inclusion in the Classroom

Image credit: www.alumnus.msstate.edu

Autism spectrum disorder, or ASD, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is used as an umbrella term to cover four disorders or range of disorders.  Included under the ASD umbrella are autistic disorder, Asperger’s syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and childhood disintegrative disorder (Research Autism, 2016).  ASD is referred to as a “spectrum” because of the “wide range of symptoms, skills, and levels of disability in functioning that can occur in people with ASD” (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, n.d.).  ASD can present differently from person to person and in a variety of ways.  While some diagnosed with ASD may show severe developmental delays, others may show average or above average intelligence and even giftedness.  However, ASD primarily displays as qualitative impairments in three areas: social interaction, communication, and restrictive, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior (Doorlag & Lewis, 2011).  There are a number of ways to consider these impairments in order to differentiate instruction, provide accommodations in the classroom, and aid in student success academically, socially, and communicatively.

Students with ASD often struggle socially.  Reciprocity in social interaction is challenging and may be difficult, confusing, or uncomfortable for ASD students.  This delay is often presented as a lack of joint attention, inability to comprehend social cues, poor or absence of eye contact, limited or lack of interaction with others, difficulty reading facial expressions and body language, and more.  Social interaction should be encouraged in the classroom and can be done so in several ways.  First and foremost, a full inclusion environment is highly beneficial and preferred for ASD students whenever and wherever possible.  Immersion in the classroom with neuro-typical peers offer ASD students the opportunity to gain influence as well as observe and participate in social structure.  Keeping the ASD student in a central location in the classroom is best, so as maintain social immersion as well as to prevent ASD students from distraction or deterring themselves from peer interaction (Doorlag & Lewis, 2011).  ASD students should be encouraged or placed in social situations or cooperative play.  Buddy systems offer motivation for ASD students to interact socially, but also the comfort of one-on-one interaction that is not too over-stimulating (Doorlag & Lewis, 2011).  Once an ASD student is comfortable interacting with one buddy, they may benefit from a social skills group.  Within a social skills group, ASD students may practice social skills with each other and with neuro-typical peers.  Both general and special educators can lead these groups and provide scaffolded language support, structure and predictability, multiple and varied learning opportunities, and more (Anderson & Anderson, n.d.).

Fostering social development varies widely depending on the maturity level and severity of delay of the ASD student.  Students may benefit from interactive games and activities that foster social give-and-take.  Simple tasks such as delivering and returning messages to/from the main office or leading a choral group in memorization tasks (alphabet, counting, etc.) are excellent examples of mutual interaction.  A game of bean bag toss – in which academic topics can also be adapted within the game – is effective in promoting socialization in that it provides “clear reinforcement of nuanced communication: children ask, usually through non-verbal cues, for the bean bag and are rewarded by having it tossed their way” (Integrity Inc, 2015).  Any turn-taking activities that require the sharing of space and materials engage students in social interaction.  Older students should be involved in group work and activities with well-defined roles and expectations.  To reinforce what has been learned, visual prompts in the form of videos, pictures, checklists, or prompt cards are a great way to remind ASD (and all) students of their new social skills.  All of these techniques teach ASD students a “script” for what’s “appropriate” in social behavior that they can memorize and follow as needed.

Communication delays are highly prevalent in ASD.  Some ASD students are non-verbal while others – such as those with Asperger’s syndrome – are less likely to exhibit language delays.  Still, communication and social interaction go hand-in-hand, and most ASD students would benefit from communication building activities.  Communication delays include “delays in spoken language, inability to initiate or sustain conversation, repetitive use of language (or echolalia), and lack of make-believe or imaginative play” (Doorlag & Lewis, 2011).  Delays in language may also include delayed responses – give these students the time to think and formulate responses without the stress of being rushed.  Echolalia is a great way to foster responses from ASD and all students as well: when posing a question, immediately model a response, such as (question) “What is your name?” (answer) “My name is Dan” (Doorlag & Lewis, 2011).  Educators should encourage the student to mimic phrasing and can even use the ASD student’s name in the example for extra direction.  Narration of actions is also a way to provide a lens for the student to see how communication works: narrate everything from what you are writing on the board to what the student is doing as you watch them work through a problem.  This way, much like the “script” that an ASD student might memorize from social learning, a more literal “script” can be learned for communication.  If a student is reluctant to attempt new or reciprocal speech, focus on the student’s interests.  Once these channels of interest are noted and open to discussion, the ASD student may feel comfortable or encouraged to begin a conversation on their own.

Nonverbal students also require communication building.  Although a student may be nonverbal, there is potential for that student to emerge upon language in some form.  Much like with social interaction, initial focus should be placed on nonverbal communication.  “Gestures and eye contact can build a foundation for language” and enables a student to communicate in some form (Dawson & Elder, n.d.).  Simplifying your language and narration will help to build a receptive language databank and may lead to expressive language.  Apps and devices are also available to give these students a means of communicating, from choosing pictures to associate with words to text-to-voice typing.

Receptive language, or what a child understands, is just as important as expressive language, or what a child can say or express.  Some ASD students may understand literal speech but have trouble decoding what is indirectly implied.  Idioms and hypothetical language may prove difficult for some ASD students to comprehend.  Clear and concise language is always best.  For example, asking students to “please put your workbooks away, push in your chairs, and line up at the door” is better than a conversational, meandering monologue such as “It looks nice out today, students!  When you are done with your workbooks, maybe we will go outside.  Line up after you put your workbooks away, but only if you’re finished with your work.”  You can see how the first set of instructions is less confusing that the second.

Finally, restrictive, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior are often indicative of ASD.  This behavior may include “preoccupation with an interest, compulsive adherence to a routine, motor mannerisms, and occupations with parts of objects” (Dawson & Elder, n.d.).  Though by definition these are classified as impairments, some of these tendencies can be advantageous or even helpful to ASD students.  Preoccupation of interests can be used to influence students; for example, if a student fixates on the topic of trains, they can be asked to expand on that topic for a writing assignment.  Compulsive adherence to a routine, if viewed positively, can be a sign of good instruction- and rule-following.  If a student reacts negatively to disruption or to diversion of a routine, set a visual timer that the student can control themselves (upon request of the teacher).  Give the student the role or task of transition scheduler where he is responsible for keeping track of transitions, provided the schedule is clearly written and accessible; this also aids the student in fortifying transition strategies which can often be a struggle for those on the spectrum.

Motor mannerisms, or stimming, should not be viewed negatively unless the student is causing themselves harm.  Instead, stimming can be an involuntary means of regulating sensory overload.  Some students may stim if upset or overwhelmed while others may stim from excitement or boredom.  Stimming is often viewed by ASD individuals as a means of creating output to release the overwhelming sensory input they experience.  Thus, stimming should not be discouraged unless absolutely necessary, as it is often a way for students to comfort themselves.  If peers find the ASD student’s stimming distracting or unusual, use this as an opportunity to educate your ASD student’s peers on autism and sensory processing.  Foster awareness and acceptance among them, and subsequently, you may help to evade potential bullying and exclusion.  Often, ASD students are viewed as “different” by their peers, so it is especially important for educators to help promote peer relationships and understanding.

With all of the techniques listed above, it is absolutely crucial to take note of overstimulation in ASD students.  An ASD student may easily become overwhelmed or stressed and may need to be allowed to cope or, in some cases, be helped to cope.  Allowing the student a break from activities, a chance to get out of their seats or time for stimming allows them to work through the sensory overload.  If a student is overly sensitive or overstimulated to sounds, adaptations can be made such as socks or pads on chair legs to prevent scraping or noise cancelling headphones to help with concentration.  If a student is under-sensitive, remove objects that are distracting or suggest compression or weighted clothing/vests for the student.

Understanding autism, differentiating instruction, implementing classroom strategies and adaptations, and fostering awareness among peers is essential to creating a full inclusion classroom for ASD students.  Countless resources are available for educators, parents, and students alike in the education of ASD and ASD awareness.  Websites such as ResearchAutism.org and NationalAutismAssociation.org provide programs, materials, and a central hub for educators, parents, and those affected by ASD alike.

References

Doorlag, D.H., & Lewis, R.B. (2011). Teaching students with special needs in general education classrooms: student value edition (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Integrity Inc (2015, July 21). Seven ways to increase social skills in children with autism. Retrieved from https://www.integrityinc.org/7-ways-to-increase-social-skills-in-children-with-autism/

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (n.d.). Autism Spectrum Disorder fact sheet. Retrieved from https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Autism-Spectrum-Disorder-Fact-Sheet

Sussman, F. (2012). More Than Words: A Parent’s Guide to Building Interaction and Language Skills for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder or Social Communication Difficulties. Toronto: The Hanen Centre.

## The Effects of Poverty on Child Development

Poverty in the United States has evolved, thus gaining a more broad definition beyond simple economic terms.  Poverty includes not only financial measurement, but the lacking of material assets and resources, physical and mental health, information and education, and capabilities such as social belonging and cultural identity (Engle & Black, 2008).  Poverty affects the ability for parents to prepare their children for adulthood, which is a transition made easier when more resources are available.  Among the low-, mid-, and high-socioeconomic groups, a marked difference in development has been noted among adolescents with detriment placed upon those in poverty.  Consequently, a more appropriate term for poverty would be “capability deprivation,” which is a debility that affects children, adolescent development, language acquisition, the home environment, mental health, and parenting efficacy, capacity, and health.  Poverty is a debilitating issue for many children and families in the United States with evident effects upon education, language development, and the adolescent brain.

Poverty’s Effects on Family and Education

The U.S. education system has battled poverty’s influence for decades.  According to a 2013 survey by the National Center for Education Statistics, 51% of public school students were considered low-income, and public schools in 40 states were comprised of 40% or more low-income students (Slade, 2015).  More than 50% of children in rural areas and 37% of children in urban areas live in families whose income were 200% below the federal poverty threshold (Vernon-Feagans, Garrett-Peters, Willoughby, Mills-Koonce, & The Family Life Project Key Investigators, 2012).  The number of children living in low-income families is staggering, but the consequences of poverty overwhelmingly point to detrimental development in adolescents.  Low- socioeconomic families are more likely to experience economic insecurity and household instability, and long-term poverty has significantly higher effects on children’s outcomes than short-term poverty.  Although the term “poverty” refers to more than just lack of money, studies have shown that a family’s monetary value affects children in all adolescent stages.  In early childhood, money makes the most difference to cognitive outcomes, while in later childhood and adolescence, money makes more difference to social and behavior outcomes (Cooper & Stewart, 2013).  Thus, the influence of poverty has the potential to span a child’s entire school career.

In addition to the effects of poverty on adolescence, the family as a whole is also affected.  Impoverished families typically reside in low-income communities which in turn lack in resources, particularly in the area of physical and mental health.  With a rising average of learning disabilities and mental health disabilities, the need for physical and mental health availability is dire.  Insufficient healthcare causes disadvantages for low- socioeconomic families to receive intervention for learning and mental disabilities.  Insufficient education results in the inability for low-income families to recognize and comprehend potential issues within the early stages of mental health problems.  Parents who do not have the information to effectively recognize a child’s struggle(s) often fail to seek intervention.  Furthermore, health providers in low-income communities may not maintain updated information or opinion, resulting in lowest level practice, due to obliviousness of existing clinical trials or other interventionist resources.  Low-income communities typically have a shortage of mental health providers which translates to insufficient or nonexistent availability of care for mental or learning disorders.  Resources that are accessible within the community may be inflexible in terms of availability, delivery, or the qualifying factors that mandate a family’s ability to access said resources.

Undoubtedly, low- socioeconomic families experience an array of obstacles, and the children in these families tend to be deeply and negatively impacted.  Yet as research shows, the children and communities who are most in need have the least availability of intervention and support.  A child’s home life, emotional well-being, education, and more are directly affected by poverty.  Fortunately, government implementation of preschool programs such as Head Start has filled the gap for many communities.  Geared toward low-income communities and at-risk children, these programs provide assessments and intervention for learning, development, and language delays and disabilities.

Poverty’s Effects on Language

Humans have the innate capacity that makes language acquisition inevitable.  This capacity is why psychologist Erika Hoff believes that all normal children in normal environments learn to talk.  The success of the child’s language acquisition and the extent to which a child masters language, however, depends upon environmental supports, among many things.  Evidently, poverty substantially influences both environment and language acquisition variability.

A family’s socioeconomic status is indicative of a child’s cognitive ability and literacy, as parent-child relations and conversations are crucial for a child’s language development.  A child’s linguistic environment depends upon the language used by its parent or caregiver.  The aforementioned importance on the parental education level comes into play, as limited education reduces a parent’s ability to provide a stimulating environment for their children.  Young children in low-income families are less likely to be read to, with fewer than half of low-income parents reading to their preschoolers on a daily basis.  Comparatively, 61% of families above the poverty line read to their young children daily (Engle & Black, 2008).  The simple act of reading to a child contributes to their comprehension skills and phonemic awareness, which builds the foundation for all facets of language acquisition, vocabulary building, and reading.

Although the ability to acquire language is innate in human beings, the ability to read is not inherent in the human brain.  Reading must be learned, and every skill that supports the ability to read must be taught.  These skills include phonological awareness, fluency, phonics, comprehension, and vocabulary (Jensen, 2009).  The variety, quality, and quantity of language that parents use with their children are also subjective to socioeconomic status.  In one study in which two year old children were evaluated over the course of one week, children from low- socioeconomic families heard less words and less variety of words than their high- socioeconomic counterparts (Hoff, 2006).  The children in the high- socioeconomic group had college-educated mothers who reliably talked more with their children, utilized a fuller vocabulary, and more frequently replied or questioned their children, interactively.  The results of this study showed that children from low- socioeconomic families heard only 62,000 words on average per week compared to children in middle- and high- socioeconomic families who heard 125,000 and 215,000 words, respectively (Hoff, 2006).  The study’s results offered insight into the beneficial qualities of increased attention and focus provided by more highly educated parents.  These qualities are often lacking among low-income parents.

A child’s ability to build a comprehensive vocabulary continues to rely upon parental involvement beyond the second year of life’s stage of emerging language.  In another study, a group of three year olds were evaluated in terms of their vocabulary growth patterns.  Children of middle- to high- socioeconomic families were adding words to their vocabularies “at twice the rate of children in low-socioeconomic families” and the patterns of slow vocabulary growth “correlated with a slower cognitive pattern by the time children turn three” (Jensen, 2009).  Yet another study evaluated the depth of vocabulary among three year olds.  The study determined that socioeconomic status accounted for a 36% variance in vocabulary in terms of word variety, as well as a marked difference in size of vocabulary, ability to produce complex and spontaneous utterances, and quality of productive and receptive syntax.  The study also determined that the average child from a low- socioeconomic family had a 500 word vocabulary by age three, whereas the average child from a high- socioeconomic family had a 1000 word vocabulary (Jensen, 2009).  As they enter school, children are projected to know 13,000 words and to have been exposed to five million words.  However, children from low- socioeconomic families do not typically meet this average.

A vocabulary that is lacking in depth and diversity are often due to the parent’s inability to partake in thoughtful and interactive conversations with their children.  Children in poverty are exposed to a more limited range of language capabilities because their parents or caregivers also have limited vocabularies and language capabilities.  Many facets of child development is linked with language usage, and a parent’s ability to positively and effectively nurture their child may be compromised by poverty.  A low- socioeconomic parent tends to use simpler sentence structure and is often dominated by commands “rather than by explanations and elaboration with an increase in the percentage of negative comments made” (Engle & Black, 2008).  Stress inevitably produced by the effects of poverty negatively impacts a parent’s emotional well-being and consequently impacts their children.  This outcome interferes with the quality of interactions between parent and child, particularly with language, thus limiting a child’s linguistic environment.  It is apparent that a parent’s literacy, ability to use complex and diverse language, and emotional availability is essential to a child’s language development.

Poverty’s Effects on the Adolescent Brain

A child’s language development, and development as a whole, is an astounding process.  The innate ability of language acquisition and the language systems of the brain have been studied to produce a better understanding of how language works.  Unfortunately, poverty has proven to be detrimental to language development, but also, brain development as well.

The developing adolescent brain has crucial needs in order to grow and mature healthily.  These needs include, but are not limited to, strong parental bonds, consistent love and support, safe and stable environments, reciprocated emotional interactions, and enrichment through personalized complex activities.  If these needs are not met, deficits hinder the production of new brain cells and the neural circuitry in children’s brains, which damages emotional and social development (Jensen, 2009).  Emotional dysfunction, a lack of emotional regulation, and a narrow range of appropriate emotional responses, and stress are consequences of these deficits.    When these needs are not met, a child experiences stressors that also affect their developing brains.  Children in low- socioeconomic families are at a higher risk of experiencing neglect, abuse, familial violence, disruption, and separation.  Stress affects the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, which are the areas in the brain responsible for learning, cognition, creativity, and working memory.  Stress also shrinks neurons in the brain’s frontal lobes which is an area in which judgment, planning, and impulsivity function (Jensen, 2009).  These impacts result in a reduction in learning capacity.

Another system within the brain that is affected by poverty-induced stress is the left perisylvian system which controls language learning.  The left perisylvian system encompasses the semantic, syntactic, and phonological variables of language learning and is the foundation for reading, pronunciation, spelling, and writing skills (Jensen, 2009).  To further examine the effects of socioeconomic status on the perisylvian system, a study was conducted to test the language skills of a diverse set of first grade students.  The study found a 30% variance among the students with the low- socioeconomic students being negatively impacted.  The study considered the scientific evidence of a longer course of maturation within the perisylvian region of the brain, producing a longer period of development within the language system.  This extended period results in a higher susceptibility to environmental influences upon language development.  As research and studies have determined, the environment in which a child prospers is entirely indicative of a child’s developmental success, particularly with language.  Children subjected to impoverished standards often do not thrive as well as children in high- socioeconomic families and environments.

Conclusion

Poverty has an insurmountable impact on child development.  Impoverished children experience a lack of resources within their communities.  Impoverished parents are ill-equipped and oftentimes unable to fulfill a child’s developmental needs.  Adolescent language acquisition is hindered in the low-income household, and even the adolescent brain suffers from inadequate and inappropriate influence.  The effects of poverty have been linked to excessive student absences within the school system and increase the likelihood of school dropouts among students.  Poverty and poverty-induced stressors walk hand-in-hand with impaired attention, concentration, cognition, creativity, memory, social skills, comprehension, vocabulary, and numerous other facets of the developing adolescent brain.  Understanding the realities of poverty’s impact on education, language development, and the adolescent brain may lead to further support and enhancement strategies of children in need.

References

Cooper, K., and Stewart, K. (2013, October 22). Does Money Affect Children’s Outcomes? JRF. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.jrf.org.uk/report/does-money-affect-children%E2%80%99s-outcomes

Dashiff, C., DiMicco, W., Myers, B. and Sheppard, K. (2009), Poverty and Adolescent Mental Health. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 22: 23–32. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6171.2008.00166.x

Engle, P. L. and Black, M. M. (2008), The Effect of Poverty on Child Development and Educational Outcomes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1136: 243–256. doi: 10.1196/annals.1425.023

Hoff, E. (2003), The Specificity of Environmental Influence: Socioeconomic Status Affects Early Vocabulary Development Via Maternal Speech. Child Development, 74: 1368–1378. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00612

Hoff, E. (2006, January 25). How social contexts support and shape language development. Developmental Review, 26(1), 55-88. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2005.11.002

Jensen, E. (2009, November). Chapter 2: How poverty affects behavior and academic performance. Teaching with poverty in mind: What being poor does to kids’ brains and what schools can do about it. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Perkins, S.C., Finegood, E.D., Swain, J.E. (2013). Poverty and language development: Roles of parenting and stress. Innovations in clinical neuroscience. Innov Clin Neurosci. 2013 Apr; 10(4): 10–19.

Roseberry-McKibbin, C. (2012, July 28). The impact of poverty and homelessness on children’s oral and literate language: practical implications for service delivery. ASHA Schools Conference. Retrieved from http://www.asha.org/uploadedFiles/Poverty-Homelessness-Childrens-Oral-Literate-Language.pdf

Talbot, Margaret (2015, January 12). The Talking Cure. The New Yorker: Annals of Education. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/01/12/talking-cure

Vernon-Feagans, L., Garrett-Peters, P., Willoughby, M., Mills-Koonce, R., & The Family Life Project Key Investigators. (2012). Chaos, Poverty, and Parenting: Predictors of Early Language Development. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(3), 339–351. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2011.11.001

Wasik, B.A., Bond, M.A., and Hindman, A. (2006). The effects of a language and literacy intervention on Head Start children and teachers. American Psychological Association, 06: 0022-0663. doi:  0.1037/0022-0663.98.1.63

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## Phonological Case Study

The author of the case study is Sophie Latanowski, who is a speech and language therapist.  The case study is entitled “Speech therapy case study of a 3-year-old girl with a developmental speech sound delay.”  The case study was written April 21, 2012.  There is no date associated to when the study was conducted.

In the case study, the child showed signs of speech sound disorder, and more specifically, phonological disorder.  Phonological disorder, according to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), usually involves errors such as substituting sounds made in the back of the mouth like “k” and “g” for sounds made in the front of the mouth like “t” and “d.”  The child in the case study, however, had this issue reversed.  She had trouble making the “t” and “d” sounds and instead replaced them with “k” and “g” sounds, so “letter” becomes “lekker.”  Also, the child showed difficulties with other early developing sounds such as with the “f” sound, produced with a long flow of air which was, in the child’s case, cut short and instead producing the “p” sound (“fish” was “pish”).

The supporting points of the case study were that the processes in which the child was having difficulty were uncommon and not typically found in developing speech.  The processes were outside the “normal error” for the age of three.  As a result of that assessment, the child was directed to speech therapy.  In speech therapy, a step plan of sorts was used to help the child develop correct production of the aforementioned speech sounds and processes.  First, focus was placed on auditory bombardment where the child was provided with opportunities to hear the correct pronunciation of the speech sounds.  She was also given picture cards with cued articulation for the sounds, as well as tasks to discriminate between a target sound and what she typically replaced that sound with to ensure she could tell them apart (Sidney, 2012, April 21).  Then, therapy focused on production in which diagrams and games used to help the child practice producing her new, correct sounds.  Practice with producing these sounds evolved from isolated sounds, to the sounds combined with a vowel, then variations between sounds at the beginning, end, and middle of a word.  Finally, the speech sounds were used in sentences.  Ultimately the child showed progress and success via weekly sessions.

Speech sound and phonological disorders may manifest itself in the classroom in a variety of ways.  Children may show an inability to produce the correct sounds in language learning, such as learning the alphabet in a preschool setting or learning “sight” or “snap” words in kindergarten, first, and second grades.  Sometimes speech may be partly or completely incomprehensible.  Often a parent may assume their child is “babbling” beyond the typical age but can still understand the child, whereas people outside of the immediate family may not be able to understand the child’s babbling somewhat or at all.  For school aged children, academic problems in spelling and reading may also be indicative of a phonological disorder, as children may not be able to discern correct sound-to-letter associations when producing, writing, or reading words.  Another possible red flag may be a child who is “less willing to participate or play in classroom activities” due to sounding different from their peers and finding themselves frustrated and/or ridiculed as a result (Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders, n.d.).

As a teacher, the first step I would take is to coordinate with the school’s speech-language pathologist to develop an IEP for the child.  Of course, effort to intervene the issue should also take place within the classroom in addition to any speech and language services.  Within the classroom, it is important to build upon the pathologist’s teachings of how to place the tongue, form the lips, and so on by giving the student ample opportunity to practice and use those skills.  These practices may include repetition of difficult sounds and emphasis on contrasts between phonemes.  It is important to take note of the phonological context, coarticulation, and assimilation of the sounds the child is struggling with in order to discern whether the child has a deep-rooted cause to her disorder that may need other, more diligent therapy.  These steps are important in recognizing the need for therapy, assessing and determining the severity of a disorder, providing the therapy, and assessing the child’s progress.

The steps for detecting a phonological disorder in a child, as well as the therapy used on the child in the case study, both entail phonology in reading methods with a learning view.  The basic phonology teaching sequence can be applied to a phonological disorder.  First, phonological and phonemic awareness should be taught.  This is “the ability to identify the phonemes in a word and manipulate them in various ways, such as adding a phoneme, deleting a phoneme, or substituting one phoneme for another” (Freeman, 2014).  Emphasizing the correct usage of phonemes was crucial in the case study child’s therapy.

References

Freeman, D. E., & Freeman, Y. S. (2014). Essential linguistics: What teachers need to know to teach ESL, reading, spelling, grammar (2nd ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Sidney, S. (2012, April 21). Speech therapy case study. Children’s Therapies. Retrieved from http://www.childrenstherapies.co.uk/speech-therapy-case-study

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## Flip, Turn, or Slide and Congruence (3rd grade lesson plan)

This lesson begins to teach students the geometric concepts of flip, turn, slide, and congruence.  Students will learn the accompanying vocabulary and  demonstrate the concepts using hands-on learning and graphing.

### Title of Lesson

Flip, Turn, or Slide and Congruence

### Standards

3.G.A.1           Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals).  Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of those subcategories.

### Student Learning Goal(s)

• Students will know the following vocabulary: triangle, congruent, symmetry, transformation, slide or translation, flip or reflection, turn or rotation, pre-image, image.
• Students will be able to demonstrate the above vocabulary and construct each independently.

### Bloom’s Taxonomy

Remember previous geometrical concepts that apply to this lesson (e.g. quadrilateral,
rhombus, rectangle, square, and others).
Understand new vocabulary and concepts.
Apply vocabulary and concepts in the activity.
Create diagrams of the vocabulary proposed.

### Assessment

Formative assessment: following the teacher’s demonstration using an overhead projector and pentominoes (or other shape/geometric materials) to demonstrate the vocabulary, students will attempt to mimic what they have learned and form their own diagrams and recordings.  Teacher will check for understanding.
Summative assessment: following the lesson and subsequent days of practice, an evaluative test would be administered.  An evaluative test can range from (a) simple testing or quizzes with work shown, or (b) via a geometry journal project where students will create a reference book defining and diagraming the vocabulary.

### Procedures/Lesson Sequence

1.  Discuss each term with the students as a class.  Each student will record the term and definition (one per page) in their geometry journal.
2. Check prior knowledge: use overhead magnetic pentominoes to have students demonstrate their knowledge of the terms.
3. Conduct hands-on activity: provide students with individual sets of pentominoes and graph paper (optional).  Students will practice translations, reflections, and rotations.
1. Provide a list of steps students must follow to produce each diagram.  For example, problem #1 would state: from point A, show 2 slides and 2 flips across the graph paper.  Students will then trace the starting point (pre-image) as well as their ending point (image).  These pages of graph paper should be included in their geometry journal.
4. Closing: Have students share and describe how they found their answers.

### Materials

Graphing paper, pentominoes (or other shape/geometric materials), overhead projector, pencils, journal or folder designated for geometry terms.

### Technology

An overhead projector is required to demonstrate the vocabulary using pentominoes or other overhead shape/geometric materials.  This technology engages students as it gives a real-time, hands-on example of the vocabulary being discussed.  Students may also be asked to use the projector and pentominoes themselves when called upon to demonstrate their learning.

• Pre-teach all vocabulary and concepts.
• Provide study guides and worksheets to provide references and foster memorization.
• Write vocabulary and definitions on the board so that students may easily transcribe without error into their journals.
• Use visuals via the overhead for visual cognition.
• Use simple terms in association with difficult vocabulary (i.e. “slide” for translation, “flip” for reflection, and “turn” for rotation).
• Have students repeat directions for the steps, and provide substantial pause between steps while vocalizing.
• Write steps on the board and have students transcribe them into their journals.
• Have students use pentominoes so as to easily visualize the steps.
• Have students use graphing paper to produce precise diagrams.
• Circulate the room and provide assistance or thinking points with students if they struggle.
• Instruct students to raise their hands and ask questions if they find themselves “stuck.”
• Have students work with buddies to produce their diagrams, then copy into their own respective journals.
• If students have difficulty writing, provide print-outs of the steps for students to cut and paste into their journals (graph paper also aids in writing legibly).

Image credit: ExcelMathMike

## The “Feel” of Music (kindergarten lesson plan)

This lesson incorporates music and art concepts to explore the “feel” of music.

### Lesson Title

The “Feel” of Music

### Course

Kindergarten interdisciplinary lesson plan for Music and Art

### Materials

• Medium to play music, such as computer, boombox, etc.
• Various songs of different types (slow, fast, upbeat, sad, etc.) preferably from different cultures/genres
• Crayons of many different colors for each student to use
• Large piece of paper that can be divided/folded into parts

### Objectives

The students will

• Listen to different songs and recognize contrasting expressions, emotions, sounds, etc.
• Identify expressions and emotions that they feel the songs represent.
• Translate the expressions and emotions into terms of art, such as color, line, etc.
• Describe their personal reactions to the musical selections and how they referenced those reactions in their artwork.

### Standard(s)

Music:

ART.M.I.K.11             Recognize contrasting expressions of music.

ART.M.III.K.3            Describe the music performed and presented in kindergarten by moving, drawing, or through other appropriate responses.

ART.M.III.K.4            Introduce music vocabulary emphasizing opposites; i.e. fast and slow, loud and soft

ART.M.III.K.7            Identify and support personal reactions to a musical selection.

ART.M.IV.K.1            Identify and describe distinguishing characteristics of starkly contrasting styles.

ART.M.V.K.2             Observe and identify cross-curricular connections with the kindergarten curriculum

Art:

ART.VA.I.K.2             Work with materials and tools safely with environmental awareness.

ART.VA.I.K.3             Explore the elements of art through playful sensory experiences.

ART.VA.I.K.4             Prepare, complete, and sign finished artwork.

ART.VA.II.K.2           Use a variety of lines, colors, and basic geometric shapes and patterns to creatively express feelings and personal experiences.

ART.VA.II.K.5           Express thoughts and ideas through the creation of artwork.

ART.VA.III.K.2          Recognize that art can be created for self-expression or fun.

ART.VA.III.K.3          Describe the sensory qualities in a work of art.

ART.VA.V.K.3           Identify how pattern, shape, rhythm, and movement are used throughout the arts.

ART.VA.V.K.4           Explore connections between the visual arts and other curriculum.

### Anticipatory Set

5 minutes

Open discussion with students about music:

• Do you like listening to music?  Why or why not?
• How do they feel when they listen to music?
• Does it make them want to dance or sing?
• Do they feel the same feelings with every song they hear, or do they feel differently about different songs?
• If you could color or draw how you feel when you listen to a song, what would it look like?

### Introduction / Direct Instruction

5 minutes

• Instruct the children to fold their sheets of paper in as many parts as you have musical selections (i.e. 6 songs, fold the paper to make 6 sections, divided by fold lines).
• (Transition) “Let’s listen to this first song. As you listen, think about how it makes you feel.  Then, I would like you to color or draw in the first square what you think this song sounds like, or how it makes you feel.  You can draw anything, and it can be any color, as long as you can explain what you drew and how it relates to the music.”
• Play an excerpt from the first song. Allow the students time to think, then draw.  If further direction is needed, reiterate: “Listen first, then think, and lastly, draw.”

### Checking for Understanding

2 minutes

At the end of the first excerpt, select a few students to describe their artwork. Ask: “How did the song make you feel?  What colors did you choose and why?  Did you draw any objects or people, or is it just color?”  You may also use this opportunity to define “abstract art.”  This discussion is to ensure comprehension of what is expected of the students before moving on.

### Direct Instruction/Guided Practice/Assessment of Learning

10-15 minutes

Continue with the rest of the musical selections. Discuss each as needed.  Take time to notice differentiation between students’ reactions, i.e. “This song made Suzie feel sad, but it also made Andrew feel tired.  Why do you think that is?” or “Suzie feels sad, so she used the color blue.  Andrew felt tired, so he used the color black.  Why do you think that is?”  Have students explain their reasoning.

### Lesson Close

Select a quieter song to use for transition, and relate the components of the song to the students’ expression. “Listen to the softness and quietness of this song.  Let’s be just as quiet as we put away our things and move on to the next lesson.”

## Underhand Throw (1st grade lesson plan)

Physical Education unit consisting of three coordinating lesson plans

### Lesson Plan Title

Underhand Throw – Demonstration and Bowling

30 minutes

### Objective(s) the students will be able to:

• Throw underhand at a target within their personal space.
• Step with opposition, bring arm back, and release the ball underhanded in front of them.
• Practice spatial awareness and ball control.

### Standard(s)

Demonstrate Level 2 performance in: spatial awareness, effort, underhand throw

### Equipment Needed

• CD player and music
• Bowling pins
• Bowling balls

### Warm-up

5 minutes (use this time to set up equipment)

• Students will jog around the track while the music plays.
• Students will swing their arms with purpose as they run, focusing on the rhythmic swinging that will later on mirror the swing of the underhand throw.
• When the music stops, students will line up on the track sideline.

### Lesson introduction/details, cues, etc.

5 minutes

• “I will go over the cues for throwing the ball underhand at the target.”
• Demonstrate the proper stance for standing in the “ready to throw” position, opposite the target.  Demonstrate swinging the arm way back, stepping with the opposite foot, then releasing the bean bag out in front.

### Skill/Activity Practice

15 minutes

• Divide the students into five groups.  Create five “lanes” with bowling pins at one end.
• Students will each take a turn in their groups to underhand throw the bowling ball.  They get two throws each turn (like with actual bowling).
• One student should be at the opposite end to pick up pins and return the ball – ball must be returned also with underhand throw.
• Students must practice spatial awareness and ball control due to the ability of the balls to go astray.

### Closing

5 minutes

Reiterate the demonstration of the appropriate stance for underhand throwing and controlling the ball.  Have students return equipment to the equipment area.

### Lesson Plan Title

Underhand Throw – Throw the Yard

30 minutes

### Objective(s) the students will be able to:

• Throw underhand at a target within their personal space.
• Step with opposition, bring arm back, and release the ball underhanded in front of them.
• Practice spatial awareness.

### Standard(s)

Demonstrate Level 2 performance in: spatial awareness, effort, underhand throw

### Equipment Needed

• CD player and music
• Several bean bags (the more the better!)
• 4 hula hoops

### Warm-up

5 minutes (use this time to set up equipment)

• Students will jog around the track while the music plays.
• Students will swing their arms with purpose as they run, focusing on the rhythmic swinging that will later on mirror the swing of the underhand throw.
• When the music stops, students will line up on the track sideline.

### Lesson introduction/details, cues, etc.

5 minutes

• “Let’s review how to underhand throw.”  Demonstrate.
• Discuss the rules for “Throw the Yard” game.  Students will be underhand throwing bean bags into other teams’ “yards.”  If they see a bean bag on the ground in their “yard,” they may pick it up and throw it into the neighbor’s yard (hula hoop).

### Skill/Activity Practice

15 minutes

• Divide the students into four groups; also, divide the gym floor into four quadrants.  Each quadrant will have one hula hoop at its center.
• Students will be underhand throwing into their neighbors’ yards.  They must get their bean bags into the other teams’ hula hoops without leaving their own yard.  The goal is to have the least number of bean bags in their own hula hoops.
• They cannot take bean bags out of the hula hoops that other teams have successfully thrown into their hula hoops.  They cannot overhand throw or purposefully hit another player.  These violations will call for removal from the game.

### Closing

5 minutes

Reiterate the demonstration of the appropriate stance for underhand throwing and controlling the ball.  Have students return equipment to equipment area.

### Lesson Plan Title

Underhand Throw – Hopscotch

30 minutes

### Objective(s) the students will be able to:

• Throw underhand at a target within their personal space.
• Step with opposition, bring arm back, and release the ball underhanded in front of them.
• Practice spatial awareness, balance, and the locomotor skill of hopping.

Standard(s)

Demonstrate Level 2 performance in: spatial awareness, effort, underhand throw

### Equipment Needed

• CD player and music
• Chalk
• 25 bean bags (one per child)

### Preparation

Do this activity on a nice day where you can take students outside to the black top.  Pre-draw several hopscotch courses.

### Warm-up

5 minutes (use this time to set up equipment)

• Students will jog around the track while the music plays.
• Students will swing their arms with purpose as they run, focusing on the rhythmic swinging that will later on mirror the swing of the underhand throw.
• When the music stops, students will line up on the track sideline.

### Lesson introduction/details, cues, etc.

5 minutes

• “Let’s review how to underhand throw.”  Demonstrate.
• Take the students outside and discuss the rules of hopscotch.  Demonstrate how to carefully aim and underhand throw to get the “spot” you want on the hopscotch course.

### Skill/Activity Practice

15 minutes

• Divide the students into four hopscotch teams.  Each team will have their own hopscotch course.  Each student will have their own bean bag to underhand throw on their hopscotch course.
• Students will throw their bean bags on the course, one by one, in an underhand throw.  The spot on the course that the bean bag lands on, the student must not hop on that spot.  They will hop on one foot through the course, then upon returning, attempt to pick up their bean bag (and then may hop on that spot).

### Closing

5 minutes

Reiterate the demonstration of the appropriate stance for underhand throwing and controlling the ball.  Have students return equipment to equipment area.

Image credit: OPHEA

## Nutrition Labels (5th grade lesson plan)

Health Education unit consisting of three coordinating lesson plans.

### Lesson Plan Title

Nutrition Labels – Reading and Deciphering

30 minutes

### Objective(s) the students will be able to:

• Read food labels and find nutritional values.
• Differentiate between healthy and unhealthy foods based upon their nutritional value.

### Standard(s)

1.3         Demonstrate the ability to use information on food labels to choose nutrient-dense foods and beverages, and to avoid or limit foods and beverages that are low in nutrients or may impact health conditions.

1.4         Prepare meal plans according to the federal dietary guidelines.

### Material Needed

• Food labels cut from various food packages.
• Federal dietary guidelines for nutrition.

### Lesson Procedure

1. Begin lesson by asking students: “How do we find a food’s nutritional value?  How do we tell if it is healthy for us or not?”
2. Pass out food labels to students.  Allow time for students to study the labels.
3. Ask students to share their findings: how much sugar does their food have?  How much salt?
4. Using the information pulled from the federal dietary guidelines, explain the recommended allowances of sugar, salt, and et cetera with the students.
5. Ask the students to raise their hands if any of their foods exceed or come close to the recommended allowances.
6. Determine as a class which labels fall into a “healthy” category and which fall into an “unhealthy” category.

### Lesson Continuation

For homework and for the next lesson, ask the students to find their favorite food in their homes.
Each student will cut out the food label to bring to class.
Each student should find the sugar content and, with the help of an adult if needed, measure that amount of sugar into a Ziploc bag to bring to class.
Students should use a sharpie marker to label on the Ziploc bag what the food item is, and how much sugar is in the bag.

### Lesson Plan Title

Nutrition Labels – Favorite Foods

30 minutes

### Objective(s) the students will be able to

• Read food labels and find nutritional values.
• Differentiate between healthy and unhealthy foods based upon their nutritional value.
• Compare and contrast sugar content in foods.

### Standard(s)

1.3         Demonstrate the ability to use information on food labels to choose nutrient-dense foods and beverages, and to avoid or limit foods and beverages that are low in nutrients or may impact health conditions.

1.4         Prepare meal plans according to the federal dietary guidelines.

### Material Needed

• Students’ individual food labels brought from home; the teacher should bring one as well for an example.
• Ziploc bag of sugar coordinating with the chosen food label.
• A large surface.

### Lesson Procedure

1. Begin lesson by showing the bag of sugar brought by the teacher, explaining the amount, and describing the food item it is found in.  Have the students discuss whether or not the amount of sugar constitutes if the food is healthy or unhealthy.
2. Allow students to, one by one, share their sugar content.  As a class, decided which are healthy and unhealthy.
3. Most students will probably categorize their favorite foods into the unhealthy category as most foods contain sugar.  Discuss with the students how a food may contain sugar yet still be considered healthy.
4. On a large surface, sort the Ziploc bags of sugar in order by least to most sugar.  Have students compare which foods have the least sugar versus which have the most.
5. Have students turn in the food label cut outs of their favorite foods for the next lesson.

### Lesson Plan Title

Nutrition Labels – Make a Menu

30 minutes

### Objective(s) the students will be able to:

• Read food labels and find nutritional values.
• Differentiate between healthy and unhealthy foods based upon their nutritional value.
• Create a menu based upon federal dietary guidelines.
• Learn how to make good food choices as well as the concept of moderation.

### Standard(s)

1.3         Demonstrate the ability to use information on food labels to choose nutrient-dense foods and beverages, and to avoid or limit foods and beverages that are low in nutrients or may impact health conditions.

1.4         Prepare meal plans according to the federal dietary guidelines.

### Material Needed

• Several food labels cut from various food packages, or created mock-ups of food labels.
• Federal dietary guidelines for nutrition printouts.
• Paper and pencils.

### Lesson Procedure

1. Begin lesson by passing back the students’ favorite food nutrition labels from the previous lessons and a printout of the federal dietary guidelines.
2. Review the federal dietary guidelines and discuss the recommended intake values for students their age.  Values should include (but are not limited to) sugar, salt, carbohydrates, fats, protein, vegetables, fruits, and et cetera.
3. Separate students into groups of five.  Using the food labels or mock-ups, give each group several to choose from.  Instruct the groups to create a day’s menu.  Their menus should follow the dietary guidelines and recommended intake amounts, should seem like enough food to feed an active child, and should allow for one “enjoyable” snack agreed upon by the group.  Have the groups discuss whether their favorite foods can or should be fit into their menus.  The groups should document their finished menus and their nutritional values on one paper per group.
4. Once completed, have the groups share their findings.  Each group should share what foods they chose and how much of each of the nutritional values listed in step number 2.  Students should also share which of their favorite foods could and could not be fit into their menus.

By |February 18th, 2016|5th Grade, Health|

## Primary and Secondary Colors (kindergarten lesson plan)

This lesson combines art and music concepts to teach a catchy song that will help young students memorize their primary colors.  They will then translate their knew knowledge to an art activity to explore beyond  the primary colors into secondary colors.

### Title of Lesson

Primary and Secondary Colors

### Course

Kindergarten Arts

Complementary subject: music

### Resources

The Primary Color song for easy remembering of the primary colors:

The Primary Color Song
(sung to the tune of Three Blind Mice)

Red, Yellow, Blue
Red, Yellow, Blue
I see you
Red, Yellow, Blue
You are the primary colors
You make all the other colors
I wish I was a color
Like Red, Yellow, Blue

### Standard(s)

ART.VA.I.K.2       Work with materials and tools safely with environmental awareness.
ART.VA.I.K.3       Explore the elements of art through playful sensory experiences.
ART.VA.I.K.4       Prepare, complete, and sign finished artwork.
ART.VA.II.K.1      Explore the basic uses of art materials to produce artwork.
ART.VA.II.K.2      Use a variety of lines, colors, and basic geometric shapes and patterns to creatively express feelings and personal experiences.
ART.VA.II.K.4      Select subject matter and communicate a personal story in a painting or drawing.
ART.VA.II.K.5      Express thoughts and ideas through the creation of artwork.
ART.VA.III.K.4    Describe a personal artwork.
ART.VA.V.K.1       Identify and discuss art in the student’s environment.

### Objectives

Students will:

• Identify primary and secondary colors.
• Explain how mixing primary colors can create secondary colors.
• Create marble art pieces to demonstrate their understanding of primary and secondary colors, as well as how to make secondary colors.

### Materials

• Red, yellow, blue paints
• Several marbles
• Shallow cardboard boxes
• Tape
• Paper plates
• Smocks
• Color Palette Worksheet
• Whiteboard
• Red, yellow, blue dry erase markers
• An array of colored markers, crayons, or colored pencils – ensure you have several colors for each child to choose from.

### Vocabulary

• primary color
• secondary color
• tint
• hue

### Class Time Needed

Lesson can expand across three days, or be condensed into 1-2 long lessons.

### Preparation

To minimize on mess, parent volunteers would be a great asset for the marble art portion of this lesson plan.

### Lesson Procedure

Day 1: 15-30 minutes

1. Introduce the concept of primary and secondary colors by discussing red, yellow, and blue.  Demonstrate the colors by coloring circles of each color on the whiteboard using dry erase markers.  This allows students to more easily visualize the lesson.
2. Discuss how red, yellow, and blue are primary colors. These are the “main” colors that all other colors are made from.  Teach the students the Primary Color song, which is sung to the tune of “Three Blind Mice.”  The lyrics are:
Red, Yellow, Blue
Red, Yellow, Blue
I see you
Red, Yellow, Blue
You are the primary colors
You make all the other colors
I wish I was a color
Like Red, Yellow, Blue
3. Ask students questions about the primary colors, such as: if they have ever mixed these colors together and what colors they have made; how they have mixed colors (using what medium); what happens when they mix two colors, three colors, or all colors together?
4. Once the students have thought about the colors they have mixed, hand each child the color palette worksheet. Ask students to color circles on their papers of colors and think  about how each color was made.
5. Have students suggest colors they think are made from mixing other colors; ask the students what colors they think are mixed to make the color they suggested – write the name of the color on the board beneath the primary colors. Discuss how these mixed colors are hues, tints, and shades of the primary colors, and then define each type (hue, tint, shade).  Discuss primary versus secondary colors.

Day 2: 30-60 minutes

1. Start the lesson by singing the Primary Color song.
2. Divide students into groups to minimize the number of paint stations in the classroom. Each group should have a paper plate on which you will poor blue, red, and yellow paint.
3. Each student should have their own cardboard boxes. Cereal boxes with one side cut out work great for this: be sure to tape the sides of the box shut so that a marble can safely roll around in the box.
4. Have each student put on their smock. Then, put one marble in each color of paint.  Each student should use one marble from each color of paint to roll in their boxes, creating a marble art piece of the primary colors.
5. To create secondary colors, have each student pick a color they would like to create. For example: a student may saturate a marble in the yellow paint, and then dip it into the red paint as well.  Then, when rolling the marble in the box, they will see how the combined colors create orange.  At this point, it is okay to mix paint colors as they dip – the mess is fun!  As the students create their artwork, encourage discussion about the colors they are making, whether they are primary or secondary, and whether or not they are creating hues, tints, or shades.  Ask students why they chose a certain color, what they like about that color, and what other things are that color.

Day 3: 15 minutes

1. Start the lesson by singing the Primary Color song.
2. The marble art pieces should be dry and ready to show off to each other/take them home. Students may discuss with each other or as a whole class the colors they created.

### Extension Activity

15-30 minutes

Choose a piece of artwork that is fun to look at and has many colors represented.  Ask students to look for the primary colors.  Then, ask the students to look for secondary colors.  Ask which colors were created to make the secondary colors that they spot.  Subsequently, allow the students to create their own drawing, and have them pay attention to which colors they are using.  Circulate the room and check in with students, asking them which colors they are using, whether they are primary or secondary, and if secondary which colors can be mixed to create the secondary color.

Image credits: Poissy Design, Printables4Kids.com

## Physics: Forces and Interactions (kindergarten/3rd grade lesson plan)

This lesson introduces students of any age to introductory physics.  This fun activity leads into a customizable lesson that can be tailored to most elementary grades.

### Lesson Title

Forces and Interactions

### Course

Kindergarten and/or 3rd Grade Science (physics)

### Materials needed

• hairdryer
• lightweight ball such as a ping pong ball

### Objectives

• Students will observe the concept of force and its interaction with Earth’s gravity.
• Students will observe the interaction between higher air pressure and the pull of gravity.
• Students will develop an understanding of Newton’s law of action and reaction: 3rd law: for every action there must be an equal and opposite reaction.

### Standard(s)

Kindergarten: Forces and Interactions, Pushes and Pulls

K-PS2-1:       Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object.

K-PS2-2:       Analyze data to determine if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a push or a pull.

3-PS2-1:       Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object.

### Anticipatory set

• Kindergarten: use a diagramming exercise to focus students’ attention on the class objectives.
• Third grade: use brainstorming techniques and a Writing to Learn (WTL) exercises to focus students’ attention on the class objectives.

### Introduction

Discuss the concepts of gravity, force, air pressure, action and reaction.

Pose questions to engage students. Have students brainstorm and either write down (grade 3) or discuss (kindergarten) theories that may answer the questions.  Pose more complicated questions to grade 3 students.  Questions may include: How does gravity keep us on the ground? What happens if we don’t have gravity?  How does the concept of force relate to gravity?  How do things float?  Can we make something float despite gravity, and if so, how?

• Grade 3: Conduct the demonstration and ask questions to further understanding: what do you think will happen to the ball when we put it in the air stream? What will happen if we try to pull the ball out of the air stream?  Why do you think the ball can float?  Is the force of gravity still in effect?  What is the “action” and what is the “reaction”?
• Kindergarten: Conduct the demonstration and have the students draw what they see. As you discuss action and reaction, have the students diagram using arrows and other symbols to display what they believe is happening, i.e. gravity versus air pressure.

### Procedures

• Angle the blow dryer in an upright position and turn the speed on to its highest level.
• Carefully position the ping pong ball in the air stream, then let go.
• Move the blow dryer slowly and carefully to demonstrate how the ball will move in sequence with the blow dryer. (Further thinking #1)
• Have a student slowly and carefully attempt to move the ball out of the air stream. (Further thinking #2)
• Attempt to tilt the air stream to one side and see if the ball stays suspended. (Further thinking #3)
• Have a student attempt to add another ball to the air flow. (Further thinking #4)

### Conclusion

As the experiment is conducted, have students hypothesize outcomes for each “Further thinking” application. Use the hook, “What would happen if…?”

• Explain: the airflow from the blow dryer pushes the ping pong ball upwards until its upward force equals the force of gravity pushing down on it. When it reaches this point, it gently bounces around, floating when the upward and downward forces are equal.
• Explain: the reason the ping pong ball stays nicely inside the column of air produced by the blow dryer without shifting sideways is due to air pressure. The fast moving air from the hair dryer creates a column of lower air pressure.  The surrounding higher air pressure forces the ping pong ball to stay inside this column, making it easy to move the blow dryer around without losing control of the ball.
• Compare: What else works similarly to this concept? The outward-flowing air exerts an inward force on the ball, just like the downward flow of air beneath a helicopter exerts an upward force on the blades of the helicopter.
• What does it mean when the wavy lines on the paper are higher or lower? How could you use that to measure an earthquake?  Example: height of the largest waves indicates the size of an earthquake.
• How can scientists use seismographs all over the world to pinpoint the location of an earthquake? Think about ripples in a pond or GPS systems.  Example: length of the earthquake record and the arrival times of each wave, the distance of the focus from the recording point can be determined.
• What parts of the activity emulate how a true earthquake occurs? What are some of the problems an earthquake causes?  Examples: destruction of buildings, larger earthquakes causing small changes to Earth’s orbit, etc.

### What to do next time

• Have the students consider ways to improve the activity, or present new ways to test action and reaction.